Survivors of war in northern Kosovo (III): The role of anger and hatred in pain and PTSD and their interactive effects on career outcome, quality of sleep and suicide ideation
1 Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT), Copenhagen, Denmark
2 Kosova Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (KRCT), Pristina, Kosovo
3 Department of Psychology, University of Pristina, Pristina, Kosovo
4 Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina, Pristina, Kosovo
Conflict and Health 2012, 6:4 doi:10.1186/1752-1505-6-4Published: 30 July 2012
The management of chronic debilitating health conditions after trauma remains a challenge in post-conflict settings. The study aimed to expand current understanding of the diagnostic overlap of pain and PTSD and explore their independent and interactive effect on career change, sleep disorder and suicide ideation. The role of anger and hatred as contributing factors to the persistence of pain and PTSD were also examined.
125 victims of torture and massive violence identified in a household survey took part in the in-depth assessment. Socio-demographic data and information on trauma, emotional disturbance, injuries and medication history were collected. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Pain was assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Margolis Pain Diagram.
Nearly 95% participants experienced pain during the last 2 weeks, 47% were diagnosed with PTSD, 50% were taking medication against depression and anxiety. There is substantial overlap of pain, PTSD and emotional disturbance. Injury history, PTSD and negative emotions were related to the pain score and the number of pain locations. Anger, hatred or an inferiority complex particularly amplified pain experience. Headache was constant and especially prevalent in those with recent experience of anger, aggressiveness and hatred. The risk of having chest and abdominal pain within 2 weeks was very high in those who had chest injury and had recently been crying. An increased risk of changing jobs or stopping work or schooling due to depression or injury was observed for those with a higher pain score, and for pain in neck, shoulder and upper limbs. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 80%, that of suicide ideation 70%, and these were found to be associated with greater pain and anger. PTSD was also related to suicide ideation.
The findings provide an overview of pain characteristics in individuals with PTSD and injury and confirm the hypothesized effects on career outcome, sleep disorders and suicide ideation. The study revealed a high level of persistent anger and hatred. The findings suggest the need for new approaches to rehabilitation in a post-war setting, including ways in which to address collective emotional hurt in the society.